Lesson planning is a fundamental activity for all educators in any disciplines of knowledge. Lesson plans communicate to learners what they will learn and how they will be assessed, and they help instructors organize content, materials, time, instructional strategies, and assistance in the classroom. Each lesson plan has constructed of different elements that all of them  have such an important and critical role  in learning.I describe the following components to point out their roles in planning of  anatomy lessons.


Objectives are the first and the most important components of every lesson plan. According to Michelle Shields, a consulting teacher in Philadelphia, learning objectives are the heart of every lesson because they  give a purpose for learning and play as the foundation for lesson planning (Wong, 2011). I address this resource because she explains the difference between goals and objectives clearly, the two terms which  make some kinds of confusion in the field of education. I will use the guidance that the writer has made to determine  what specific knowledge or skill is desired, and what method of instruction and criteria for achievement is required for success.

Wong, H. R. (2011). Learning Objectives:  The Heart of Every Lesson. Effective Teaching.  Retrieved January 29, 2015, from http://www.teachers.net/wong/MAR11/

Characteristics  of Adult Learnerns

Knowles’ theory of Andragogy defines a framework to establish an instructional program in the field of adult learning. Accordingly, adults need to know why they need to learn something, and they need to learn experientially. Furthermore adults approach learning as problem-solving, moreover adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value (Culatta, 2013). In practice, when I want to design my instruction, for example, in teaching human anatomy to medical students, I should notify them why this subject plays a fundamental role in their professional life. A physician must know the various parts of the human body in the first step.The recognition of disease and treatment is followed by achievement in this initial point.

Culatta, R. (2013). Androgagy (Malcom Knowles).   Retrieved Jan30, 2015, from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/andragogy.html

Instructional Process/Strategies

Terrell (2006) describes all instructional designs may be taken in teaching the Human Anatomy course based on different learning theories. Since I believe that in undergraduate levels the application of cognitive theory in this subject is the best view, I will apply the five major instructional innovations were implemented into the human anatomy lecture and were consistent with cognitive hypotheses about the design of effective lecture experiences.They consist of the needs assessment and curriculum evaluating, locating textual free visuals, creating a lecture series manual that contained most of the lecture notes, developing two structured collaborative learning activities, and creating two tools for students to engage in distributed practice outside of the classroom (Terrell, 2006) .

Terrell, M. (2006). Anatomy of learning: instructional design principles for the anatomical sciences. Anat Rec B New Anat, 289(6), 252-260. doi: 10.1002/ar.b.20116


This  component  has  a crucial role to enhance learning in the field  of  anatomy courses.Students need to see visuals to get a better understanding of  the structure and relationships of all parts of the body. Recently, lecture Tools which  has introduced by the University of Michigan  is considered as the instructional strategy  which is applicable in a wide range of disciplines. I will use of this app in my class because it allows  my student to be engaged in the classroom activities and follow the slides and videos that presented in class. I hope I could convince my executive authorities of my organization to implement this app in their educational program.



According to Kasworm (1997) the landscape of the adult learning assessment reflects a diversity of  backgrounds and climates. The importance of assessment, especially in higher education and professional practice is very clear. I will apply the five key principles that can guide adult-oriented assessment including: “learning is derived from multiple sources, learning engages the whole person and contributes to that person’s development, learning and the capacity for self-direction are promoted by feedback, learning occurs in context; its significance relates in part to its impact on those contexts,and learning from experiences is a unique meaning-making event that creates diversity among adult learners”(Kasworm & Marienau, 1997).

Kasworm, C. E., & Marienau, C. A. (1997). Principles for Assessment of Adult Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 1997 (75), 5-16. doi: 10.1002/ace.7501

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