Welcome to my blog!

This blog is created primarily for Provincial Instructor Diploma Program(PIDP),  which is offered by  School of Instructor Education at Vancouver Community College(VCC) British Columbia, Canada. Along with fast paced changes of developing in  all fields of technology and science, educational matters are being affected by  these changes, so the   educators  in all parts of the world  need to get familiar with this wave of modernism which technology has brought for all of us. Creating the blog is one of the most effective communication tools in establishing a community of individuals with same interests and thoughts.  The content of this blog are mainly about the education and I’ve tried to post updated   information in various disciplines of  education and learning,with more focus on my background subject, Anatomical Sciences,hope you find these materials helpful!

Many thanks!

Shahla

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Posted in PIDP 3250-Instructional Strategies | Leave a comment

Reflection on some instructional strategies (Digital projects of past students of PIDP)

1-E – Learning, By Emmaleigha_Munro  |  Updated: June 10, 2015, 2:19 p.m.

https://www.powtoon.com/online-presentation/bhWEu5c3Eb6/e-learning/?mode=movie

In this Powtoon video, Emmaleigha  introduces the E-Learning as a relatively new strategy, from 1999, which has grown  rapidly. The most important factors which are regarded as pros for this strategy are access,  being  low cost and  encourages student to be self- directed learner , however some cons such as technology issues, lack of  control , and individual needs of learner  should be considered. As a whole, I think E-learning has been very successful  strategy particularly in recent years and  there is an increasing trend toward using this learning environment around the world.

2-Problem- Based Learning,  

This strategy which has been established by the educational thoughts of John Dewey, is recognized as  a student-centered strategy and has several steps:

1-Arrange the students in group

2-Students will decide who will be the facilitator and who is the note taker

3-instructor reviews the rules and etiquette of participation in a group

4-Student will discuss and clarify the problem and its variables

5- Students brain storm based on their knowledge and the research they need to do

6-creating an action plan and search for solution in various resources

7- students share their acquired knowledge to each other

8-Students discuss until a solution is acceptable by all members

I believe this strategy is most beneficial for problems that students will face to  in real life situation and  in discipline such as economy and social sciences are most practical.

3- Case Studies,By tyersb  |  Updated: May 27, 2014, 4:24 p.m.

https://www.powtoon.com/p/fPKYs766st7/?mode=movie

This strategy is useful for teaching in many subjects where the  real life scenario are presented and they should to be challenging, engaging, authentic, and  realistic because they promote critical thinking. The role of educator is explaining the case and giving information and learners need to reconstruct the information and find the best way to help the cases. This technique is very common in medical education and there are a lot of case studies sample in their textbooks.

4-Simulation, by Nik. Brushta

http://screencast-o-matic.com/watch/c2hvlcnBow

This strategy is based on the real life scenarios and how students react in same situation that they already have learned in their curriculum. In this strategy some consideration are needed such as: prebrief, curriculum integration, realistic setting, repetitive practice,learning outcome and level of difficulty. A lot of pros  are accompanied  with this technique such as deep learning, accommodation for all students, confidence, hands on training , easy for giving feed back by instructors, and some cons including, cost, faculty time, environment fidelity. In medical education particularly whenever we need hands-on training this technique is such a positive an effective tool  even these days many of laboratory techniques are taught by this strategy.

5-Demonstration, by Elain Baird, March 2011

In this strategy which is used in many subjects such as science corporate with the lab materials , cooking , and computer training the instructor make a model for learners to observe him/her and learn. The limitation is that this is a passive strategy for learners and advantages would be they can see an expert(instructor ) who performs this task. I think it would be a good strategy if it followed by doing practice by students in next step.

6-Lecture, by Sheena Svitich, March 2011

Sheena says, the most common way  in lecturing is  using of power point presentation. this technique is useful when you decide to teach some facts and basic skills , also if you have a good oral presentation ability, furthermore humans have tendency to listen ready-made something, you have a large group of students and limited time. To enhance the efficacy of this technique you need to implement some other techniques , mix instruction, use of audiovisual tools and engage your students in the class by various techniques such as taking note, asking question, and so on…

In the discipline of anatomy educators have to use this technique, so they need to implement all the techniques for presenting an interactive and effective lecture.

 

 

 

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5 tips for getting all your students engaged in learning

Teachers are always looking for the ways to make their teaching inclusive, in which students grasp,retain and apply the new materials. According to  Whitney Rapp and Katrina Arndt, authors of the new Teaching Everyone: An Introduction to Inclusive Education,  teachers need to “recruit their students’ interest and  find ways to make learning relevant, authentic, and valuable” in their lives.

Here are 5 steps you can follow to actively engage your students and help them feel personally connected to their learning:

Retrieved from: http://archive.brookespublishing.com/articles/ed-article-0212.htm

1. Connect what you’re teaching to real life
2. Use students’ interests and fascinations
3. Give students choices
4. Present information in multiple formats
5. Teach students self-monitoring skills

1-Connect what you’re teaching to real life

One key way to involve students in their learning is to ensure the material speaks to them. These strategies, adapted from Teaching Everyone and Systematic Instruction for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities, the new text by Belva Collins, will connect your lessons to students’ real-life experiences:

  • Choose culturally relevant materials. According to the National Council of Teachers of English, students who do not find representations of their own cultures in texts are likely to lose interest in school-based literacies. (Read howone new teacher learned this valuable lesson in this excerpt from Teaching Everyone.) Have your students complete a short survey on their outside interests and use that information to assist in building your lesson plans. This will help your students see the connections between what they’re learning inside and outside the classroom.
  • Use specific everyday examples. An easy way to help students feel personally connected to what they’re being taught is to talk about how they can apply the material in real life. In Systematic Instruction for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities, Collins suggests teachers demonstrate how students can apply the math concepts they are learning to help them manage personal finances, ensure nutritional sustenance, and schedule daily activities.
  • Link routines to learning. Conversely, teachers can promote learning through classroom routines. For instance, a child learning to wash hands during bathroom breaks can also be taught science concepts (body parts, hygiene and disease prevention, water conservation), reading (bathroom signage), antonyms (hot/cold, left/right), and math (counting).

2-Use students’ interests and fascinations

Find out what your students are passionate about and then use those interests as natural motivators to increase engagement. Whether a child is fixated on one thing or has a few areas of intense interest, there are many simple strategies you can use to work those fascinations into your instruction. The result? Happier, more motivated students.

In “Just Give Him the Whale!” 20 Ways to Use Fascinations, Areas of Expertise, and Strengths to Support Students with Autism, authors Paula Kluth and Patrick Schwarz offer an abundance of suggestions on how to use student interests to boost learning in key areas:

  • Literacy. Allow a child to integrate their most-loved characters and possessions into your classroom reading time. In one case, a student was able to participate in reading circle when his turn came once he was permitted to speak through a favorite puppet.
  • History. Find creative ways to adapt standards-based content to the fun things your students are excited about. For example, one US history teacher explained the U.S. role in the UN and its relationship to other nations by drawing an analogy with the Super Friends cartoon characters.
  • Math. If you’re working on a math lesson, consider asking a student to write a problem, diagram, or pattern that relates to his particular area of interest. Sometimes, the best way to combine academic material with a student’s interests may not be immediately evident—but your students may see connections that you don’t!

To help you discover what your students are passionate about, download these student surveys from “Just Give Him the Whale!” And, learn more about innovative ways to use students’ interests to help them grasp academic content.

3-Give students choices

As Rapp & Arndt note in Teaching Everyone, engagement increases any time students are empowered to make their own choices about how they learn material. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Group students. Breaking the class up in groups increases the likelihood that everyone will contribute to class discussion and problem solving. Poll your students about their working preference, or experiment with breaking them up in different ways. Divide the students in half, place them in small teams of three or four, or divvy them up in pairs.
  • Allow students to set the pace. Let your students choose their own starting point on an assignment, and they’ll stay comfortable and challenged. For example, try giving your students tiered math problems, with increasing levels of difficulty. From least to most sophisticated, the tiers could be: determine the surface area of a cube; determine the surface area of a rectangular prism; determine the amount of wrapping paper needed to cover a rectangular box; determine how many cans of paint you’ll need to buy to paint a house with given dimensions. Once students choose a starting point, the teacher can guide them through increasing levels of mastery.
  • Try homework menus. Instead of having all of your students complete the same homework assignment, why not offer a menu of options that tie in with your lesson plan? A little variety and choice go a long way toward relieving the sense of drudgery some students experience when completing their homework. Take a look at this math menu for an example of how to give students a choice of homework problems to complete.

4-Present information in multiple formats

Every student in your classroom learns differently. So it’s important to recognize that differentiated instruction isn’t just for helping students with special needs—it’s the best way to engage all learners. Incorporate different activities, such as these suggested in Paula Kluth’s From Tutor Scripts to Talking Sticks: 100 Ways to Differentiate Instruction in K–12 Inclusive Classrooms, to accommodate diverse learning styles:

  • Class response cards. Start by distributing pre-made response cards or individual dry erase/chalkboards to each student. Then, instead of having only a few students raise their hands after a question is asked, instruct all students to write their answers on their boards or select a response from the pre-made cards. This is an easy and effective way to get your entire class involved and keep them connected to what you’re teaching, instead of waiting for a single student to provide the answer.
  • Rubber stamps. Picture, word, and letter stamps can be ideal for practicing sentence construction, counting skills, and spelling. They’re an effective tool for all students, whether they have fine motor problems, struggle with writing skills, or could simply benefit from a fun learning supplement. (There are a wide variety of stamps available to meet most of your classroom needs, but you can also easily find instructions online to make your own.)
  • Human calculator. Add an element of fun to addition and subtraction by making an oversized calculator out of an old shower curtain or large tablecloth and letting students jump to the keys. It’s an inexpensive but highly motivating change of pace that combines basic math principles with physical activity.

Download these additional creative activities you can try from From Tutor Scripts to Talking Sticks: Cue Cards, Partner Puzzles, and Adapted Board Games.

5-Teach students self-monitoring skills

An advanced way of involving children so that they stay engaged in their learning is to help them develop greater self-regulation skills. Children sometimes struggle with self-awareness, so they may not even realize when they’re straying off task or acting in disruptive ways. When children are taught to regulate their behavior and work independently, they develop habits to help them succeed and you are freed to operate more flexibly in the classroom.

Try these strategies, outlined in the new book Building Comprehension in Adolescents: Powerful Strategies for Improving Reading and Writing in Content Areas by Linda H. Mason and colleagues, to assist students with self-regulation:

  • Self-monitoring of attention (SMA). Instruct students to evaluate whether or not they’ve been paying attention at random intervals throughout the school day. This is usually accomplished with an auditory cue like a chime or tone, which prompts each child to reflect on questions like Am I at my desk? and Am I listening to the teacher? Students record their answers on a simple SMA tally sheet.
  • Self-monitoring of performance. Students log on a chart or graph whether they’ve been able to complete a pre-defined problem or task. Viewing an explicit graphical representation of their performance can have a highly motivating effect on students.
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Consistency; the key element for learning& success

One of the most important tools in effective schools is consistency.  Research and practice have proved that school leaders and teachers must  be consistent every day in carrying out their duties if they want to improve student performance and conduct.  This is a necessary element in the creation of successful schools.  Educators must say what they mean and mean what they say.  There should be clear rules, policies, requirements and expectations for everyone.  The consequences of any breach of these institutional demands should be spelled out to everyone, so that there are no unpleasant surprises.

By the same token, good conduct, excellent academic and extracurricular performance by students; excellent teaching and best practices by staff, should consistently be recognized and rewarded.  The instructional process should be regularly monitored and evaluated to promote constant improvement.

The rules must be enforced every time they are broken.  Those who break the rules have to be punished in the manner spelled out in the related list of consequences mentioned above.  Consistency is key and there should be no exceptions.  No student can be allowed to wheedle his way out of punishment.  The rules apply equally to everyone.  School leaders and teachers cannot be strict sometimes and lenient at other times.  Students and staff respect those who are strict and consistent because they are predictable and trustworthy.

Students value consistency and they expect to be punished when they break the rules.  Inconsistency causes confusion and leads to accusations  of favouritism, indecisiveness and injustice.  It destroys trust, community spirit and a positive school climate.  Staff and students need definite rules, policies and structure.  This framework makes their everyday lives predictable, fair and stable.  When everyone knows the consequences of infringements of the rules, discipline, safety and academic performance improve.  This happens when they know that the rules will be enforced.

Each school leader and teacher must be consistent in his or her daily practice.  However, there is another dimension of consistency in schools.  The administration and staff must operate like a coherent unit.  They must all interpret, apply and enforce the rules in the same consistent way.  If this is not done, students again become confused and play one teacher off against another.  The teachers who uphold the rules appear to be harsh and those who are too lenient appear to be “cool.”  The teachers who are perceived to be harsh become unpopular.  This scenario seriously undermines discipline, morale, and academic performance wherever it happens.  School leaders must also support teachers who report problems they are experiencing with students.  Administration and staff must function as one.

School leaders and teachers must create what some researchers have called a “culture of consistency” in which everyone knows the rules, the acceptable work performance standards, and what to expect without fail when they are not respected.  This fosters improved school effectiveness and underlines our assertion that consistency is key in schools for administrators, staff and students.

Retrieved from: https://eduflow.wordpress.com/2014/03/23/consistency-is-key-in-schools/

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Gamification & Learning

Gamification is the concept of applying game-design elements  to drive game-like behavior in non-game settings to make them more fun and engaging. Already video games aimed at teaching health- sciences  including medical education are making their new ways into schools. These games do not replace lectures; instead they reinforce the curriculum in a way that is both interactive and entertaining.Games motivate people in ways that other activities often do not. Students continue playing games despite encountering obstacles, yet these same students may not demonstrate the same persistence in response to setbacks in studying.

Through games and other digital media, students experience opportunities for autonomy, competence and connection to others. Providing these same opportunities in the classroom acknowledges that these elements of games are part of the students’ reality, and that this reality affects who students are as learners.  Gamification effortlessly incorporates problem-based learning, student-centered learning and integrated teaching into the medical curriculum. Games impart to students a sense of competence, self-efficacy and mastery.

Retrived from: http://in-training.org/gamed-gamification-medical-education-11029

The following link provides some interesting games for Nursing students, check this out;

http://www.learningnurse.org/games/tr-anatomy1/game.html#

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Sleep & Learning

Researches have shown that adequate sleep has such an important positive impact on  learning and improving memory.The following  article describes the relationship between these subjects with more details.

 The Learning Process and Sleep

Sleep, learning, and memory are complex phenomena that are not entirely understood. However, animal and human studies suggest that the quantity and quality of sleep have a profound impact on learning and memory. Research suggests that sleep helps learning and memory in two distinct ways. First, a sleep-deprived person cannot focus attention optimally and therefore cannot learn efficiently. Second, sleep itself has a role in the consolidation of memory, which is essential for learning new information.

Although the exact mechanisms are not known, learning and memory are often described in terms of three functions. Acquisition refers to the introduction of new information into the brain.Consolidation represents the processes by which a memory becomes stable. Recall refers to the ability to access the information (whether consciously or unconsciously) after it has been stored.

Each of these steps is necessary for proper memory function. Acquisition and recall occur only during wakefulness, but research suggests that memory consolidation takes place during sleep through the strengthening of the neural connections that form our memories. Although there is no consensus about how sleep makes this process possible, many researchers think that specific characteristics of brainwaves during different stages of sleep are associated with the formation of particular types of memory.

The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on Learning and Performance

Another area that researchers study is the impact that a lack of adequate sleep has on learning and memory. When we are sleep deprived, our focus, attention, and vigilance drift, making it more difficult to receive information. Without adequate sleep and rest, over-worked neurons can no longer function to coordinate information properly, and we lose our ability to access previously learned information.

In addition, our interpretation of events may be affected. We lose our ability to make sound decisions because we can no longer accurately assess the situation, plan accordingly, and choose the correct behavior. Judgment becomes impaired.

Being chronically tired to the point of fatigue or exhaustion means that we are less likely to perform well. Neurons do not fire optimally, muscles are not rested, and the body’s organ systems are not synchronized. Lapses in focus from sleep deprivation can even result in accidents or injury.

Low-quality sleep and sleep deprivation also negatively impact mood, which has consequences for learning. Alterations in mood affect our ability to acquire new information and subsequently to remember that information. Although chronic sleep deprivation affects different individuals in a variety of ways (and the effects are not entirely known), it is clear that a good night’s rest has a strong impact on learning and memory.

Reference: http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/matters/benefits-of-sleep/learning-memory

 

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Use of Mnemonics in learning

In some disciplines , student need to retain and recall the learning materials in their mind., so they need to learn some tips and use some tools to help them how they can do this. Mnemonics is an effective technique can help students  memorize the learning materials . In general, a mnemonic (from Greek mnemon or mindful; pronounced neh-MAHN-ik ) is a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something. The technique of developing these remembering devices is called “mnemonics.” Mnemonics can be used to remember phone numbers, all your new department colleagues’ names or the years of the reigns of the Kings and Queens of England. A number of approaches are used.(WhatIs.com)

Two common types of mnemonics are :ACRONYMS & ACROSTICS

ACRONYMS  are made as single or compound words by putting the first letters of learning materials(Capital letter) beside each others

For example:Mnemonic for  colors of light is full name :  ROY G. BIV

R: Red, O: Orange, Y: Yellow, G: Green, B: Blue, I: Indigo, V:Violet

ACROSTICS are made as a form of sentence( Mostly Funny)

For example: The order of planets in Solar System:

My Very Educated Mother Served Us Nine Pizzas

M: Mercury, V: Venus, E: Earth, M: Mars, S: Saturn, U: Uranus, N: Nepto, P: Ploto

Check this out:

 

 

 

 

 

 

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